International Trade

An exchange of goods or services between at least two separate countries is referred to as international trade. Imports and exports are two possible exchanges. A good or service that is introduced into the nation of origin is called an import. A good or service sold to a foreign nation is referred to as an export. One way that foreign entities interact economically is through trade, which is an example of economic linkage. Multinational firms, overseas workers, and foreign financial investments are some further examples of economic ties. Globalization is the term used to describe the expansion of these economic ties.

International commerce arises when a country has a comparative advantage over other countries in manufacturing a particular good or service, particularly when that country’s opportunity cost of production is lower than that of any other nation. A nation is said to be in an autarky if it chooses not to trade with other nations. In the case of a two-country scenario, commerce and specialization benefit both nations. Each nation will be able to produce the good in which they have a comparative advantage through specialization and trade, which will subsequently lead to increased consumption of both items. As a result, commerce has benefits. Due to comparative advantage and trade’s potential for profit, most economists support free trade agreements. This is due to the fact that many economists think that interference from the government will make the markets less efficient. Nonetheless, a lot of states enact protectionist measures to shield native producers against outside ones. Two main protectionist measures exist:

1. Tariffs

An excise paid on the sale of imported products is known as a tariff. Tariffs are a source of income for the government and are used to protect home producers and deter imports. Both the price domestic consumers pay and the price domestic manufacturers receive are increased by a tariff. Deadweight losses result from tariffs because they exacerbate inefficiencies by preventing some profitable trades from happening and wasting resources on unproductive production within an economy.


  1. Tariffs on imports

A legal cap on the amount of an item that can be imported into a nation is known as an import quota. Generally, license agreements are used to manage import quotas. The outcome of an import quota is the same as that of a tariff, but the license holder receives the fees as quota rent rather than tax money.

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